Hofsted’s six dimensions
- Power distance (PDI)
The concept of this dimension is how less powerful members institutions and companies believe in how it distributed unequally and how people and society deal with the same. For example, in society with high power distance, no need for justification where each member has his\her place. On the other hand, people in low power distance societies justification is highly required. (Neill, 2012)
people in Iraq following the power distance culture 95% while Egypt 70%
- Individualism and collectivism (IDV)
There are two sides of this dimension and they are opposite to each other. According to Hofstede’s theory. Individualism is the highest, which can define as loosly-kint. People are just caring and looking about themselves or their direct family. On the other hand, we can define the other side which is “collectivism” as tightly kint. Where people are not focusing in themselves only! They are sacrifice their values and ambitions for the sake or the benefit of the group. (geert-hofstede, n.d.)
People in Australia are following the individualist culture 90%, while Brazil individualism 38%.
- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
Masculinity versus femininity: this dimension refers to the distribution of values between the genders. Firstly, in masculine societies, people represent the values which contain force, such as the preference to take risks, achievement, heroism, success and competition. However, both gender are competitive but women are less than men. Secondly, femininity society which is the opposite and it contain feelings, such as caring, modesty, love and cooperation. This one does not have strong differentiation between the males and females for emotional and social roles.(Neill, 2012)
People in China are following the masculinity culture 66% while France 43%.
- Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
For this dimension, we have two kinds of uncertainties. The first is avoidance, and it is where members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. However, cultures trying to minimize the possibilities of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute truth. The second is accepting, have few rules while they and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side.(Neill, 2012)
People in Sweden are following the uncertainty avoidance culture 29% while Russia 95%.
- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
Societies must maintain things from the past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future. According to this dimension, we have the long term and short term orientation. The long term orientation is about the future, individuals from this culture aim to order relationship based on states. While the short term orientation focus on the past and present. They believe more on traditions, customs and stability. Individuals in short term orientation highly believe that disability should be hidden.(geert-hofstede, n.d.)
People in Turkey are following Long term orientation culture 46% while Thailand 95%.
- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
Indulgence is when society is full of freedom that allows free gratification of basic and natural human drives associated to the joy of life and fun. On the other hand, Restraint stands for a society that occupy gratification on needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
People in Hong Kong are following the Indulgence culture 17% while Norway 55%.
geert-hofstede. (n.d.). National Culture. Retrieved from The hofstede center: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html
Neill, C. (2012, June 7). GEERT HOFSTEDE: THE 6 DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE. Retrieved from conorneill: http://conorneill.com/2012/06/07/geert-hofstede-the-6-dimensions-of-national-culture/