Camparing Japanese and American Culture w/ Hofstede




Ø  More strong

Ø  Centralizen structure

Ø  Large gap compenstion

Low – 40%

Ø  More flatter

Ø  More flat society

Ø  people are equals




Low – 46%

Ø  More useful

Ø  Bulding skills

Ø  More value placed in group

High – 91%

Ø  Individual privacy

Ø  Individual freedom

Ø  More value placed in induviduals



High- 92%

Ø  Formal

Ø  Aviod differences

Ø  More rules & policites

Low- 46%

Ø  Informal

Ø  Accepting to risks

Ø  Accepting to changes




High- 92%

Ø  Men = masuline, women = feminine

Ø  Distinction between men & women

Low- 46%

Ø  Women = men, can do anything

Ø  Powerful, successfual and leadership





High- 88%

Ø  Strong work ethic

Ø  Educarion and training

Ø  Family is the basis of society

Low- 26%

Ø  More short term goals

Ø  Promotion of equality

Ø  More creativity & individulism




Low- 42%

Ø  Self restrained

Ø  Curb gratification

Ø  Social norms more strict


Ø  Lose social norms

Ø  Instant gratification

Ø  Enjoying life & having fun


Hofstede’s six dimensions

Hofsted’s six dimensions

  • Power distance (PDI)
    The concept of this dimension is how less powerful members institutions and companies believe in how it distributed unequally and how people and society deal with the same. For example, in society with high power distance, no need for justification where each member has his\her place. On the other hand, people in low power distance societies justification is highly required. (Neill, 2012)
    people in Iraq following the power distance culture 95% while Egypt 70%
  • Individualism and collectivism (IDV)
    There are two sides of this dimension and they are opposite to each other. According to Hofstede’s theory. Individualism is the highest, which can define as loosly-kint.  People are just caring and looking about themselves or their direct family. On the other hand, we can define the other side which is “collectivism” as tightly kint. Where people are not focusing in themselves only! They are sacrifice their values and ambitions for the sake or the benefit of the group. (geert-hofstede, n.d.)
    People in Australia are following the individualist culture 90%, while Brazil individualism 38%.
  • Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
    Masculinity versus femininity: this dimension refers to the distribution of values between the genders. Firstly, in masculine societies, people represent the values which contain force, such as the preference to take risks, achievement, heroism, success and competition. However, both gender are competitive but women are less than men. Secondly, femininity society which is the opposite and it contain feelings, such as caring, modesty, love and cooperation. This one does not have strong differentiation between the males and females for emotional and social roles.(Neill, 2012)
    People in China are following the masculinity culture 66% while France 43%.
  • Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
    For this dimension, we have two kinds of uncertainties. The first is avoidance, and it is where members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. However, cultures trying to minimize the possibilities of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute truth. The second is accepting, have few rules while they and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side.(Neill, 2012)
    People in Sweden are following the uncertainty avoidance culture 29% while Russia 95%.
  • Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
    Societies must maintain things from the past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future. According to this dimension, we have the long term and short term orientation. The long term orientation is about the future, individuals from this culture aim to order relationship based on states. While the short term orientation focus on the past and present. They believe more on traditions, customs and stability. Individuals in short term orientation highly believe that disability should be hidden.(geert-hofstede, n.d.)
    People in Turkey are following Long term orientation culture 46% while Thailand 95%.
  • Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
    Indulgence is when society is full of freedom that allows free gratification of basic and natural human drives associated to the joy of life and fun. On the other hand, Restraint stands for a society that occupy gratification on needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
    People in Hong Kong are following the Indulgence culture 17% while Norway 55%.


geert-hofstede. (n.d.). National Culture. Retrieved from The hofstede center:

Neill, C. (2012, June 7). GEERT HOFSTEDE: THE 6 DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE. Retrieved from conorneill:


WRITE H or L next to these descriptors

1. Strong sense of insiders and outsider


2. Specific information exists

3. Informal


4. Team and family activities preferred


5. Focus on results


6. Transparency expected


7. A lot of confidential information

8. Rules and regulations are easily accessible

9. Close personal relationships

10. General information


11. Elders/authoritative figures in control

12. “Have a go at it” philosophy


13. Individual responsibility

14. Concerned about ‘losing’ face.


15. Expertise valued


16. Who you know is important


17. Focus on task

18. Emphasis on words and text

19. Strong sense of family

20. what you know is important


21.Gender roles clearly defined


22.polite people admired




24. Inddividual frerdum valued


25. strong sense of honour


26. short term relationship


27. process more important than product




29. public admission of wrongdoing expected


30. strong sense of respect


31. better response to visual information


32. Gender roles less fixed


33. No direct eye contact


34.strong sense of fairness


35. verbal agreements


36. Values logic over feeling


37. very rate marriage with outsiders


38. clear division of responsibilities at work


39.written contract


40.Public criticism insulting


Africans in the west

each county have  different living standards, it depend in their way of living.

*In Africa they have no idea about the shower and how to take it, they have a differnt way in taking a bath by using the river water.

*In eating food, Africa culture doesnt know or having any idea about the names or the taste of the US food, the just ask and try it!

*US people have a wrong thought about Africa, they think that they are born in the forest while in fact, no one  ca live in the forest.

*each culture have differnt social standards with the other cultures, Sodan people think that US people are snot friendly with the strangers- while its opposite in Sodan.

cultural clash-reading

#2. American businesswomen are always done thier work in specific time, they have a strict time manegement.

#3. For the arabic county, thier is a time for everything, so if there is a party they will just forget the work and focus in thier entertainment.

#4. The workers is sales must respect thier job and come early to thier work places without being late, to attract more customers.

#5. Spanish people are too much strict in the work to be recevied in the time and they have another way for writing the date.

#6. Chinese people have some behaiver and attitude in cleaning their hands after eating, they may use the hot towel for cleaing thier hands only without cleaning thier faces.

Cultural clash-food

Each county have differnt culture and customs which allowes people to try new things and gives them the ability to discover the beauty of other cultures. Food is one of the best ways to represent a county’s culture. For Philippines “LECHON” is one of their favorite foods, it consider as thier national dish becuase they always prepared it for any special occasion, festivals and holidays. image